A significant portion of the world's population saw significant disruptions in their sleep patterns because of the COVID-19 lockout. The objectives are to assess differences in reported sleep patterns and disruptions in men and women, to evaluate the sleep disturbances in male and female, and to study the association between male and female sleep disturbance and their demographic characteristics.


men study male sleep


How to Cite
Zeyad Tariq Al-Noimi. (2022). Sleep Disturbance among Primary School Children as a Result of the COVID-19 Lockdown. Texas Journal of Medical Science, 12, 24–30. Retrieved from https://zienjournals.com/index.php/tjms/article/view/2337


  1. Liu, Z., Wang, G., Geng, L., Luo, J., Li, N., & Owens, J. (2016). Sleep patterns, sleep disturbances, and associated factors among Chinese urban kindergarten children. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14(1), 100– 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2014.963581.
  2. Wang, G., Zhang, J., Lam, S. P., Li, S. X., Jiang, Y., Sun, W., … Wing, Y. K.(2019). Ten-Year secular trends in sleep/wake patterns in Shanghai and Hong Kong school-aged children: A tale of two cities. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 15(10), 1495–1502. https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.7984 .
  3. Wang, G., Zhang, Y., Zhao, J., Zhang, J., & Jiang, F. (2020). Mitigate the effects of home confinement on children during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet, 395(10228), 945–947. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30547-X .
  4. Rajkumar, R.P., 2020. COVID-19 and mental health: a review of the existing literature. Asian J Psychiatr 52, 102066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102066.
  5. Vindegaard, N., Benros, M.E., 2020. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behav. Immun. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048.
  6. Altena, E., Baglioni, C., Espie, C.A., et al., 2020. Dealing with sleep problems during home confinement due to the COVID-19 outbreak: practical recommendations from a task force of the European CBT-I Academy. J. Sleep Res. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13052.
  7. Pappa, S., Ntella, V., Giannakas, T., Giannakoulis, V.G., Papoutsi, E., Katsaounou, P., 2020. Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain Behav. Immun. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026.
  8. Singh, S.; Roy, D.; Sinha, K.; Parveen, S.; Sharma, G.; Joshi, G. Impact of COVID-19 and Lockdown on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents: A Narrative Review with Recommendations. Psychiatry Res. 2020, 293, 113429.
  9. Bruni, O.; Malorgio, E.; Doria, M.; Finotti, E.; Spruyt, K.; Melegari, M.G.; Villa, M.P.; Ferri, R. Changes in Sleep Patterns and Disturbances in Children and Adolescents in Italy during the Covid-19 Outbreak. Sleep Med. 2021.
  10. Cellini, N.; Canale, N.; Mioni, G.; Costa, S. Changes in Sleep Pattern, Sense of Time and Digital Media Use during COVID-19 Lockdown in Italy. J. Sleep Res. 2020, 29, e13074.
  11. Innocenti, P.; Puzella, A.; Mogavero, M.P.; Bruni, O.; Ferri, R. Letter to Editor: CoVID-19 Pandemic and Sleep Disorders—A Web Survey in Italy. Neurol. Sci. 2020, 41, 2021–2022.
  12. Liu, Z.; Tang, H.; Jin, Q.; Wang, G.; Yang, Z.; Chen, H.; Yan, H.; Rao, W.; Owens, J. Sleep of Preschoolers during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak. J. Sleep Res. 2021, 30, e13142.
  13. Moore, S.A.; Faulkner, G.; Rhodes, R.E.; Brussoni, M.; Chulak Bozzer, T.; Ferguson, L.J.; Mitra, R.; O’Reilly, N.; Spence, J.C.; Vanderloo, L.M.; et al. Impact of the COVID-19 Virus Outbreak on Movement and Play Behaviours of Canadian Children and Youth: A National Survey. Int. J. Behav. Nutr. Phys. Act. 2020, 17, 85.
  14. Khubchandani, J.; Sharma, S.; Webb, F.J.; Wiblishauser, M.J.; Bowman, S.L. Post-Lockdown Depression and Anxiety in the USA during the COVID-19 Pandemic. J. Public Health Oxf. Engl. 2021, fdaa250.
  15. Scarpelli, S.; Alfonsi, V.; Mangiaruga, A.; Musetti, A.; Quattropani, M.C.; Lenzo, V.; Freda, M.F.; Lemmo, D.; Vegni, E.; Borghi, L.; et al. Pandemic Nightmares: Effects on Dream Activity of the COVID-19 Lockdown in Italy. J. Sleep Res. 2021, e13300.
  16. Bruni, O., Ottaviano, S., Guidetti, V., Romoli, M., Innocenzi, M., Cortesi, F., & Giannotti, F. (1996). The sleep disturbance scale for children (SDSC): Construction and validation of an instrument to evaluate sleep disturbances in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Sleep Research, 5, 251–261.
  17. Mucci, F., Mucci, N., & Diolaiuti, F. (2020). Lockdown and isolation: Psychological aspects of COVID-19 pandemic in the general population. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 17(2), 63-64. https://doi.org/10.36131/ CN20200205.
  18. Curcio, G., Tempesta, D., Scarlata, S., et al., 2013. Validity of the Italian version of the pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Neurol. Sci. 34, 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-012-1085-y.
  19. Wong, W.S., Fielding, R., 2011. Prevalence of insomnia among Chinese adults in Hong Kong: a population-based study. J. Sleep Res. 20, 117–126. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2869.2010.00822.x.
  20. Hinz, A., Glaesmer, H., Brahler, ¨ E., et al., 2017. Sleep quality in the general population: psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, derived from a German community sample of 9284 people. Sleep Med. 30, 57–63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2016.03.008.
  21. Zhang, B., Wing, Y.K., 2006. Sex differences in insomnia: a meta-analysis. Sleep 29,85–93. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/29.1.85.
  22. Salfi, F., Lauriola, M., Amicucci, G., Corigliano, D., Viselli, L., Tempesta, D., & Ferrara, M. (2020). Gender-related time course of sleep disturbances and psychological symptoms during the COVID-19 lockdown: a longitudinal study on the Italian population. Neurobiology of stress, 13, 100259.‏
  23. Liu, Z., Wang, G., Geng, L., Luo, J., Li, N., & Owens, J. (2016). Sleep patterns, sleep disturbances, and associated factors among Chinese urban kindergarten children. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 14(1), 100– 117. https://doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2014.963581.
  24. Wing, Y. K., Li, S. X., Li, A. M., Zhang, J., & Kong, A. P. S. (2009). The effect of weekend and holiday sleep compensation on childhood overweight and obesity. Pediatrics, 124, e994(5). https://doi.org/10.1542/ peds.2008-3602.
  25. Wu, R., Wang, G.-H., Zhu, H., Jiang, F., & Jiang, C.-L. (2018). Sleep Patterns in Chinese Preschool Children: A Population-Based Study. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 14(4), 533–540. https://doi.org/10.5664/ jcsm.7038.
  26. Staton, S., Rankin, P. S., Harding, M., Smith, S. S., Westwood, E., LeBourgeois, M. K., & Thorpe, K. J. (2020). Many naps, one nap, none: A systematic review and meta-analysis of napping patterns in children 0–12 years. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 50, 101247. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2019.101247.
  27. Owens, J. A., & Jones, C. (2011). Parental knowledge of healthy sleep in young children: Results of a primary care clinic survey. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 32(6), 447–453. doi:10.1097/DBP.0b013e31821bd20b.
  28. Panaghi, L., Kafashi, A., & Seraji, M. (2004). Epidemiology of sleep disorders in primary school students in Tehran. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 10(1), 50–58.
  29. Amizadeh, M., Shamsadini, A., Motamed, S., & Zeinadini Meimand, N. (2021). Epidemiology of Sleep Disturbances Among Primary School Students in Kerman, Iran, in 2019. Social Work in Public Health, 36(2), 311-316.‏
  30. BaHammam, A., AlFaris, E., Shaikh, S., & Saeed, A. B. (2006). Prevalence of sleep problems and habits in a sample of Saudi primary school children. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 26(1), 7–13. doi:10.5144/0256-4947.2006.7.
  31. Ozgoli, G., Sheikhan, Z., Soleimani, F., Mirzaee, S., Janatiataee, P., Ziaie, T., & Kholosi Badr, F. (2015). Prevalence of sleep disorders and its related factors among preschool children. Journal of Health and Care, 17(3), 198–206.
  32. Gharamaleki, A. S., Hoseini, S. M., Zamani, A., Vaezzadeh, F., & Djafarian, K. (2011). Sleep pattern in 6-9 years old students living in Tehran City. Journal of Isfahan Medical School, 29, 154.
  33. Iwadare, Y., Kamei, Y., Oiji, A., Doi, Y., Usami, M., Kodaira, M., Watanabe, K., & Saito, K. (2013). Study of the sleep patterns, sleep habits, and sleep problems in Japanese elementary school children using the CSHQ-J. Kitasato Medical Journal, 43, 31–37.
  34. Liu, X., Liu, L., Owens, J. A., & Kaplan, D. L. (2005). Sleep patterns and sleep problems among schoolchildren in the United States and China. Pediatrics, 115(Supplement 1), 241–249. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0815F.
  35. Blunden, S., Lushington, K., Lorenzen, B., Ooi, T., Fung, F., & Kennedy, D. (2004). Are sleep problems under-recognised in general practice? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 89(8), 708–712. doi:10.1136/adc.2003.027011.
  36. Lucas-de la Cruz, L., Martínez-Vizcaino, V., Álvarez-Bueno, C., Arias-Palencia, N., Sánchez-López, M., & NotarioPacheco, B. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the children’s sleep habits questionnaire (CSHQSP) in school-age children. Child: Care, Health and Development, 42(5), 675–682. doi:10.1111/cch.12357.
  37. Kliegman, R. M., Behrman, R. E., Jenson, H. B., & Stanton, B. M. (2007). Nelson textbook of pediatrics e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  38. Amintehran, E., Ghalehbaghi, B., Asghari, A., Jalilolghadr, S., Ahmadvand, A., & Foroughi, F. (2013). High prevalence of sleep problems in school-and preschool-aged children in Tehran: A population based study. Iranian Journal of Pediatrics, 23(1), 45.
  39. Ozgoli, G., Sheikhan, Z., Soleimani, F., Nasiri, M., & Amiri, S. (2016). Prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4-6 years old in Tehran province, Iran. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal, 18(7). doi:10.5812/ircmj.22052.
  40. Shamsaei, F., Daraei, M. M., & Aahmadinia, H. (2019). The relationship between sleep habits and mental health in Iranian elementary school children. Sleep Science, 12(2), 94. doi:10.5935/1984-0063.20190067.
  41. Yuosefgomrokchi, M., Shafipoor, Z., Paryad, E., & Atarkarruoshan, Z. (2010). A study of sleep habits of the students of primary schools of Rasht city from? (Parents, Point of View). Journal ofHolisticNursing andMidwifery,20(62).